Havbruk Norge

Verdens beste fiskeriregulering?

10 Jun 2013

Det ligger en spennende utfordring i Sjømatmeldingens målsetning om å bli verdens beste sjømatnasjon.  Skal vi ta det på alvor bør det få betydning for alle sider ved næringen. Hvilken […]

Havbruk NorgeDet ligger en spennende utfordring i Sjømatmeldingens målsetning om å bli verdens beste sjømatnasjon.  Skal vi ta det på alvor bør det få betydning for alle sider ved næringen. Hvilken betydning har dette for reguleringen og forvaltningen av fiskeri- og oppdrettsnæringen?

Mange vil si at vi har verdens beste fiskeriregulering og forvaltning. Jeg vet ikke om det stemmer; jeg kjenner ikke regelverk og forvaltning i andre land godt nok til å kunne sammenligne. Men jeg vet at mye kan gjøres bedre i Norge. Og verdens beste sjømatnasjon kan ikke slå seg til ro med en mer eller mindre vel begrunnet oppfatning av at man har verdens beste fiskeriforvaltning – man må hele tiden arbeide for å gjøre regulering og forvaltning bedre.

I denne forbindelse vil jeg peke på tre generelle forhold som jeg mener det er viktig å fokusere på dersom vi skal sikre dette.

Det første er at forvaltningen av både fiskeri- og oppdrettsnæringen bør ha et mye mer bevisst forhold til hva det er mulig å styre gjennom offentlige reguleringstiltak og hva man ikke kan styre. Alle offentlige forvaltningstiltak er en byrde for næringene. Næringsutøverne må selvsagt tåle slike byrder når de har en fornuftig begrunnelse. Men der bør også grensen gå.

Min oppfatning er at vi alt for ofte i det praktiske arbeidet for å bistå næringsutøvere i forhold til forvaltningen møter regeltolkninger og skjønnsutøvelse som er preget av at de som skal forvalte regelverket har en for lite reflektert holdning til hva man i praksis vil oppnå ved å nekte næringsutøveren å gjøre det han ønsker. En god næringsforvaltning bør preges av at næringsutøverne får et ”ja” på sine søknader dersom det er rettslig adgang til det, og det i tillegg ikke er håndfaste og konkrete hensyn som tilsier at man skal si ”nei”.  

Det andre er at en god fiskeri- og oppdrettsforvaltning må ha solid kompetanse innenfor området der de arbeider. Særlig oppdrettsforvaltningen er i dag svært oppdelt med en rekke forvaltningsorganer som har avgjørende innflytelse i enkeltsaker. Etter min oppfatning har dette blant annet den negative effekt at det er vanskelig å opprettholde den nødvendige kompetanse hos den enkelte saksbehandler. Det gjelder særlig den grunnleggende forvaltningsrettslige kompetanse som er helt nødvendig for å håndtere kompliserte saker på en riktig måte. Som advokater ser vi dette i enkeltsaker, og vi opplever dessverre for ofte at våre klienter er nødt til å gjennomføre klagerunder for å få rettet opp klare forvaltningsrettslige feil. Samtidig er det selvsagt vanskelig for oss å vurdere hvor stort problemet med manglende kompetanse egentlig er. Utfordringene i den svært oppdelte oppdrettsforvaltningen bør uansett møtes både ved oppbygging av kompetanse og ved særlig gode rutiner for kvalitetssikring av vedtak.

Det tredje er at de offentlige tiltak som innebærer spesielle omkostninger for næringsutøverne bør vurderes kritisk. Etter mitt syn er det særlig stor grunn til å rette oppmerksomheten mot de negative sidene ved for strenge økonomiske reaksjoner overfor næringsutøverne. Vi har en samfunnstrend der det er økende tro på bruken av økonomiske sanksjoner, og både i fiskeri- og oppdrettsnæringen har vi de senere år hatt en utvikling i retning av strengere økonomiske reaksjoner mot stadig flere regelbrudd. Den endringen av akvakulturloven som Stortinget har til behandling i disse dager er en del av denne utviklingen. Min oppfatning er at det legges alt for liten vekt på det negative i at økonomske sanksjoner svekker næringsutøverens økonomi og gjør ham mindre konkurransedyktig. Det er derfor alltid negativt om en økonomisk sanksjon blir for høy. Nivået på bøter og gebyrer i enkeltsaker bør aldri være høyere enn det som anses nødvendig for å gi en avskrekkende effekt.

Om forfatteren

Halfdan Mellbye
Halfdan Mellbye Halfdan Mellbye har i 25 år arbeidet med ulike juridiske problemstillinger innenfor fiskeri- og havbruksnæringen. Han har blant annet arbeidet svært mye med næringsreguleringsspørmål og han har i tillegg særlig gode kunnskaper om de biologiske og miljømessige utfordringene for næringsutøverne. Han har i en årrekke vært faglig ansvarlig for faget Havbruksjus ved Universitetet i Bergen. Han har nylig utgitt boken "Rettslig regulering av norsk akvakultur" som er utgitt på Universitetsforlaget 2018. Halfdan har møterett for Høyesterett.

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