Kontrakten om fiskefartøyet er signert, men er det mulig å trekke seg fra handelen?

12 Oct 2012

For å øke lønnsomheten i fiskerederier inngås det ofte avtaler om kjøp og salg av fiskefartøy for å kunne utnytte fiskekvotene best mulig. Det er ikke alltid at alt går […]

For å øke lønnsomheten i fiskerederier inngås det ofte avtaler om kjøp og salg av fiskefartøy for å kunne utnytte fiskekvotene best mulig. Det er ikke alltid at alt går etter planen og nye forskrifter, ervervstillatelser eller andre forhold kan føre til at rederiet ikke lenger ønsker å stå ved den handel som det gjennom kontrakten har forpliktet seg til. Hvilke muligheter er det for komme seg ut av kontraktsforholdet?

Ved de fleste avtaler om kjøp og salg av fiskefartøyer benyttes standardkontrakten Salgsform 1987 fra Norsk Skipsmeglerforbund med senere endringer/revisjoner, eller kontrakter som i det vesentligste er basert på standardkontrakten. Disse ”standardkontraktene” innholder ofte enkelte bestemmelser som til en viss grad gir partene muligheter for å gå fra avtalen.

For det første gir standardkontraktene kjøper en mulighet til å gå fra avtalen etter inspeksjon av fiskefartøyet. Dette er imidlertid bare aktuelt i de tilfeller der kontrakten forutsetter at fartøyet skal inspiseres etter kontraktsignering. For det tilfelle fartøyet er inspisert før kontraktssignering følger det av standardkontraktenes alternative bestemmelse at selger anses å ha akseptert fartøyet.

Videre er det i standardkontraktene angitt en kanselleringsdato som gir partene rett til å gå fra avtalen dersom overdragelse ikke har funnet sted innen den aktuelle dato. Kjøper kan kreve kansellering i tilfeller der selgeren ikke har overdragelsesdokumenter i orden eller ikke leverer fartøyet på den avtalte måte innen kanselleringsdato. Selger har på sin side muligheten til å gå fra avtalen dersom kjøper misligholder sin betalingsplikt eller ikke innen kanselleringsfristen er klar til å få overført fartøyet på rettmessig måte.   I dette ligger en viss mulighet for selger å trekke seg fra salget dersom kjøper ikke får ervervstillatelse etc.

Ut over dette inneholder ikke standardkontraktene konkrete bestemmelser som direkte regulerer partenes adgang til å gå fra avtalen. Begge parter kan imidlertid ta forehold for gjennomføring av avtalen, og på denne måten sikre seg en vei ut av handelen For kjøper vil det ofte være aktuelt å ta forbehold om finansiering og at det oppnås ervervstillatelse mv. For selger kan salget av fartøyet være forutsatt at rederiet forut for overdragelse gis tillatelse til utsplitting av kvoter og/eller at rederiet får ervervstillatelse til annet fartøy, slik at det er hensiktsmessig det kontrakten inneholder forbehold om dette.

Standardkontrakten inneholder generelle forbehold om styregodkjenneleser i rederiene, men ved mange kontrakter om kjøp og salg av fiskefartøy er slike forehold utelatt. Et generelt styreforbehold kan i noen tilfeller være kjærkomment ved at rederiet får en generell adgang til å trekke seg fra handelen. I andre tilfeller kan fraværet av styreforbehold være en fordel ved at avtalen blir bindende mellom partene med en gang, uten at gjennomføringen av handelen forsinkes i påvente av styrebehandling.

Kjøp og salg av fiskefartøy involverer ofte store verdier og den kontraktsmessige reguleringen av handelen er derfor svært viktig. Selv om et rederi har lang erfaring med kjøp salg av fartøy kan det være vanskelig å tenke gjennom alle mulige scenarioer når man står midt oppe i forhandlingene. I slike tilfeller vil det ofte være hensiktsmessig å søke bistand fra rådgivere med faglig ekspertise og bransjekunnskap.

Om forfatteren

Simon Christiansen
Simon Christiansen Simon Christiansen er advokat ved SANDS' kontor i Tromsø og er tilknyttet firmaets gruppe for fiskeri og havbruk. Han har utviklet en særlig kompetanse innen kontraktsutforming ved kjøp og salg av fiskefartøyer og rettigheter mv.

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