Inndragning – Fiskeridirektoratet igjen – tvilen kommer ikke næringen til gode

05 Oct 2012

Full inndragning etter tvil – igjen er sildefisket gjenstand for behandling i Fiskeridirektoratet og fokus er spørsmålet om inndragning av fangst. FiskeribladetFiskaren har den 3. oktober 2012 på nytt tatt […]

Full inndragning etter tvil – igjen er sildefisket gjenstand for behandling i Fiskeridirektoratet og fokus er spørsmålet om inndragning av fangst. FiskeribladetFiskaren har den 3. oktober 2012 på nytt tatt opp det svært aktuelle temaet inndragning og den saksbehandling som finner sted i Fiskeridirektoratet i denne type saker. Sivilombudsmannen har videre nå ved flere anledninger stilt spørsmål ved saksbehandlingen.

Dette begynner dessverre å bli mer regelen enn unntaket. Fiskeridirektoratet nekter å ta andre profesjonelle aktørers syn inn over seg og står på barrikadene på tross av all sunn fornuft. I dette tilfellet er det Sivilombudsmannens syn som ikke tillegges vekt overhodet.

I den konkrete saken som nå på nytt har blitt et tema fremgår det at Fiskeridirektoratet var i tvil om hvordan regelen skulle forstås, men ikke i tvil om at rederiet skal få inndratt sine fangster.

Den rettsvillfarelse som rederiet i dette tilfellet var i, tillegges ikke vekt fra Fiskeridirektoratets side.

Fiskeridirektoratet foretar her en såkalt administrativ inndragning uten hensyn til rederiets villfarelse. Administrativ inndragning må ses i sammenheng med bestemmelsene om strafferettslig inndragning i straffeloven §§ 34 flg. Både sanksjonens innhold (for eksempel inndragning av fortjeneste) og grunnlaget for den (lovbruddet) er i mange tilfeller det samme. Inndragning etter straffeloven er heller ikke formell straff, selv om inndragningssaker behandles i straffeprosessens former.

Følgende fremgår av lovens forarbeid: ”Behovet for bestemmelser om administrativ inndragning foreligger derfor først og fremst i saker som ikke blir anmeldt til politiet. Her kan administrativ inndragning være aktuelt som eneste sanksjon..”

Sammenhengen med strafferettslig inndragning tilsier etter utvalgets syn at bestemmelsene innholdsmessig bør være parallelle så langt ikke særlige hensyn tilsier noe annet. En antar likevel at bestemmelsene kan utformes noe enklere, fordi de alvorlige overtredelser vil bli forfulgt strafferettslig.

Det er her problemet oppstår.

Ved at et forvaltningsorgan gis mulighet til inndragning uten å følge straffeprosessens regelverk settes i realiteten næringen utenfor de ordinære spilleregler. 

Administrativ inndragning kan skje uten hensyn til subjektiv skyld.

En unnskyldelig overtredelse av aktuell lovbestemmelse kan fører til inndragning – og i realiteten straff for den næringsdrivende.

Rettsvillfarelse kan være unnskyldelig. Rettsvillfarelse foreligger når en person ikke er klar over at handlingen han begår er ulovlig.  Rettspraksis viser at uvitenhet om rettsregler skal lede til frifinnelse dersom den er unnskyldelig eller aktsom. Dersom rettsvillfarelsen er uaktsom, kan straffen settes lavere enn ellers. Rettsvillfarelse gjelder således for straffesakene generelt og er fastslått i straffeloven § 57, men får tydeligvis ingen konsekvenser for de saker som behandles ved administrativ inndragning.

Hvem skal ta det økonomiske tapet ved inndragning av fangst når det foreligger slik tvil om forståelsen av forskrifter? I den konkrete saken som nå på nytt skal behandles hos Sivilombudsmannen var Fiskeridirektoratet selv i så sterk tvil om forståelsen av denne at de måtte be om uttalelse fra Fiskeri – og Kystdepartementet. På tross av dette anses ikke rederiet å ha vært i tilstrekkelig unnskyldelig villfarelse ved mistolkningen av forskriften. Rederiet må bære tapet.

Slik Fiskeridirektoratet behandler disse sakene, er fiskerinæringen den klart tapende part både økonomisk og hva angår dens anseelse. Dette kan ikke fortsette og det må skje en opprydding i regelverket og i saksbehandlingen ved forvaltningsorganet.

Saken som FiskeribladetFiskaren tar opp den 3. oktober 2012 omhandler inndragning av sildefangst etter at fartøyene hadde fisket turkvoten på 100 tonn NVG-sild i Vestfjorden, til tross for at de hadde tatt silden utenfor det regulerte turkvoteområdet.

Rederiet kan mene at en sak er prinsipiell og at den bør prøves for retten. Kostnadene ved dette er imidlertid høy både i tid og penger. Da er det lett å velge den korte vei og slippe prosessene. En sak mot det offentlige tar som regel svært lang tid – de fleste blir jo prinsipielle og behandles til sist i Høyesterett. Da har saksbehandlingen tatt år og omfattende mengder ressurser – som næringen trenger til helt andre formål. Næringen ønsker å opptre korrekt, men blir ”stemplet” ved administrativ inndragning der Fiskeridirektoratet i realiteten aldri gir etter selv der også saksbehandlerne opplever vedtaket som sterkt urimelig.  

Slik type inndragning burde være gjenstand for direkte behandling ved en objektiv domstol, ikke ved organet som opprinnelig har sittet i førersetet for å fastsette regelverket. Alle kjenner til ordtaket om bukken som passer havresekken. På Fiskeridirektoratets hjemmeside kan en den 28. september 2012 lese om hvilke tiltak som er satt i kraft for å motvirke overfiske. Håndhevingen av slike tiltak har i dag gått for langt.

Næringen opplever samtidig at utenlandske fartøy ”fisker fritt”. Det brer seg da en misnøye og oppgitthet over en misforstått ressursforvaltning i Norges viktigste næring.

Vi arbeider for at næringen skal få bedre forutsigbarhet og at rettssikkerheten ivaretas hver dag og i hver sak. Gi næringen den respekt og tillit som den fortjener og de samme beviskrav som gjelder ellers i vårt samfunn.

Tvilen kommer tiltalte til gode – den kommer foreløpig ikke fiskerinæringen til gode.

Om forfatteren

Monica Gjerde Sperre
Monica Gjerde Sperre Monica Gjerde Sperre har i nærmere 20 år arbeidet med fiskerirettslige problemstillinger med hovedvekt på arbeidsrett og skipsarbeidsrett. Hun arbeider fra vårt kontor i Ålesund, men har oppdrag i hele regionen Midt-Norge. Hun arbeider med rettslige spørsmål som berører fiskeindustrien hva angår både landanlegg og fiskeflåten. Hun har derfor et godt innblikk i de næringsrelaterte problemstillinger som reises innenfor bransjen både rettslig og politisk.

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